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CHLORINE RISKS
Chlorine produces many risks which are not always obvious to the swimmer. Chlorine reacts with organics
and produces Trihalomethanes (THMs). These are absorbed through the skin or simply by swallowing the pool water itself.

us Government health studies have linked this exposure with cancer, organ damage, colon damage, and other health problems. After a day of swimming do you notice
a weezing feeling in your lungs and a shortness of breath? Studies have shown that competitive swimmer's lung enzymes are similar to a person who smokes 1-2 packs
of cigarettes per day!



WHY RISK LONG-TERM HEALTH EFFECTS!

Breast Cancer & Why Chlorine is a Larger Problem Than You Might Realize!

Breast cancer, which now effects one in every eight
women in North America, has recently been linked to the accumulation of CHLORINE COMPOUNDS IN THE BREAST TISSUE. A study carried out in Hartford, Connecticut, the first of it's kind in North America, found that women with breast cancer have 50% to 60% HIGHER LEVELS OF ORGANOCHLORINES (chlorination byproducts) in their breast tissue than women without breast cancer!

ORGANOCHLORINES:
"Any chemical composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms and chlorine."
Organochlorines persist in body fat for years.

MEDICAL COLLEGE OF WISCONSIN:
Dr. Robert Morris and colleagues at the Medical College
of Wisconsin concluded after examination of 10 previous studies on the cancer-causing abilities of chlorinated water:

"There is a clear pattern between consumption of chlorinated water and rectal and bladder cancer." --Dr. Robert Morris
(Dr. Robert Morris has been the featured health/water expert on "Dateline NBC" and was a key presenter at the WQA National Show in March 1995.)

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH:
Halina Szejnwlad Brown, Donna Bishop and Carol Rowan contrast their estimates of skin absorption versus drinking for three toxic chemicals.

Their analyses were based on data published for the hand. One of the least porous areas of the body. Their most surprising finding was that for a swimmer, between 83 percent and 91 percent of the chemicals entering the body came through the skin.

THE WASHINGTON POST
The EPA has raised skin absorption of chlorine to its top 10 carcinogen watch list.
June 1994

CHLORINATION RESEARCH

BLOOD AND BREATH ANALYSES AS BIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO TRIHALOMETHANES IN INDOOR SWIMMING POOLS
Aggazzotti, G., Fantuzzi, G., Righi, E., & Predieri, G. (1998) Science of the Total Environment, 217, 155-163.
CHLORINE PRODUCT ABSORPTION IN SWIMMERS IS GREATEST VIA THE SKIN Lindstrom, A.B., Pleil, J.D., & Berkoff, D.C. (1997). Alveolar breath sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105(6), 636-642
EXERCISING INCREASES THE TOXICITY OF A "SAFE" CHLORINATED POOL ATMOSPHERE Drobnic, F., Freixa, A., Casan, P., Sanchis, J., & Guardino, X. (1996). Assessment of chlorine exposure in swimmers during training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28(2), 271-274.
AMOUNT OF EXERCISE IS RELATED TO CHLORINE-RELATED CONCENTRATIONS IN THE BODY Cammann, K., & Hubner, K. (1995). Trihalomethane concentrations in swimmers' and bath attendants' blood and urine after swimming or working in indoor swimming pools. Archives of Environmental Health, 50(1), 61-65
YOUNG SWIMMERS AT GREATEST HEALTH RISK IN CHLORINATED INDOOR POOLS Aiking, H., van Acker, M.B., Scholten, R.J., Feenstra, J.F., & Valkenburg, H.A. (1994). Swimming pool chlorination: a health hazard? Toxicology Letters, 72(1-3), 375-380.
CHLORINATOR TABLETS POSE HEALTH RISKS Wood, B.R., Colombo, J.L., Benson, B.E. (1987). Chlorine inhalation toxicity from vapours generated by swimming pool chlorinator tablets. Paediatrics, 79(3), 427-430.
DENTAL ENAMEL EROSION INCREASED IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS IN CHLORINATED POOLS Centerwall, B.S., Armstrong, C.W., Funkhouser, L.S., & Elzay, R.P. (1986). Erosion of dental enamel among competitive swimmers at a gas-chlorinated swimming pool. American Journal of Epidemiology, 123(4), 641-647.
BRONCHOSPASM IN COMPETITIVE SWIMMERS Reuters Health, March 21, 2001. A study presented [03/20/2001] in New Orleans at the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, strongly suggested that swimming pool environments adversely affect the lung function of competitive swimmers.

ADDITIONAL REFERANCES
1. Beech, J.A., Diaz, R., Ordaz, C., & Palomeque, B. (1980). Nitrates, chlorates and trihalomethanes in swimming pool water. American Journal of Public Health, 70(1), 79-82.
2. Mustchin, C.P., & Pickering, C.A. (1979). "Coughing water": bronchial hyper-reactivity induced by swimming in a chlorinated pool. Thorax, 34(5), 682-683.

3. Decker, W.J., & Koch, H.F. (1978). Chlorine poisoning at the swimming pool: an overlooked hazard. Clinical Toxicology, 13(3), 377-381.